A bibliometric analysis and future research agenda for online labour platforms

Main Article Content

Valentina Vukmirovic
Željko Spasenić
Miloš Milosavljević


Online labour platforms (OLPs) are profit-oriented companies utilising technology to connect independent contractor workers with short-term service labour needs, offering a digital marketplace for posting tasks, receiving bids, and finalising agreements across various domains such as writing, design, programming, and digital marketing. This paper presents a bibliometric analysis of the concurrent body of knowledge on OLPs, explaining how the specificities of this emerging form of labour are researched from various academic standpoints. The study is based on a dataset of 358 papers on OLPs published from 2013 to August 2023. The main finding of the study is that scholarly interest in OLPs is steadily growing in the observed period. However, geographical dispersion of the scientific output is not in line with the actual level of utilisation of OLPs, and scholarly interest in OLPs spans across diverse disciplines, including industrial relations and labour, management, economics, sociology, law, and computer science. The results of this paper can help better understand the dynamics of scholarly publishing on OLPs and further leverage underexploited subtopics in this field.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Vukmirovic, V., Spasenić, Željko, & Milosavljević, M. (2023). A bibliometric analysis and future research agenda for online labour platforms. Stanovnistvo, 61(2), 183–207. https://doi.org/10.59954/stnv.537


Andersen, M. L. B. (2022). Digital Platforms and Insurance Coverage of Damages on Third Parties. European Review of Private Law, 30(6), 999 – 1018. http://www.kluwerlawonline.com/api/Product/CitationPDFURL?file=JournalsERPLERPL2022047.pdf

Batmunkh, A., Fekete-Farkas, M., & Lakner, Z. (2022). Bibliometric Analysis of Gig Economy. Adminis-trative Sciences, 12(2), 51. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci12020051 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci12020051

Bellesia, F., Mattarelli, E. & Bertolotti, F. (2022). Algorithms and their Affordances: How Crowdworkers Manage Algorithmic Scores in Online Labour Markets. Journal of Management Studies, 60(1), 1-37. https://doi.org/10.1111/joms.12870 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/joms.12870

Bergvall-Kåreborn, B., & Howcroft, D. (2014). Amazon Mechanical Turk and the commodification of labour. New Technology, Work and Employment, 29(3), 213–223. https://doi.org/10.1111/ntwe.12038 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ntwe.12038

Bertolini, A. & Dukes, R. (2021). Trade Unions and Platform Workers in the UK: Worker Representation in the Shadow of the Law. Industrial Law Journal, 50(4), 662–688. https://doi.org/10.1093/indlaw/dwab022 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/indlaw/dwab022

Boateng, R., Penu, O. K. A., Anning-Dorson, T., & Budu, J. (2022). Fairness in the Platform Economy: A Bibliometric Analysis of Journal Research Articles. Digital Innovations, Business and Society in Africa, 253–280. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-77987-0_12 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-77987-0_12

Burtch, G., Carnahan, S., & Greenwood, B. N. (2016). Can You Gig it? An Empirical Examination of the Gig-Economy and Entrepreneurial Activity (March 7, 2016). Ross School of Business Paper No. 1308, https://ssrn.com/abstract=2744352 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2744352 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2744352

Cantarella, M., & Strozzi, C. (2021). Workers in the crowd: the labor market impact of the online plat-form economy. Industrial and Corporate Change, 30(6), 1429–1458. https://doi.org/10.1093/icc/dtab022 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/icc/dtab022

Cini, L. (2023). How algorithms are reshaping the exploitation of labour-power: insights into the pro-cess of labour invisibilization in the platform economy. Theory and Society. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11186-023-09520-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11186-023-09520-9

Datta, N., Chen, R., Singh, S., Stinshoff, C., Iacob, N., Nigatu, N. S., Nxumalo, M., Klimaviciute, L., & et al. (2023). Working without Borders: The Promise and Peril of Online Gig Work. World Bank, Wash-ington, DC. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/entities/publication/ebc4a7e2-85c6-467b-8713-e2d77e954c6c

Donthu, N., Kumar, S., Mukherjee, D., Pandey, N., & Lim, W. M. (2021). How to conduct a bibliometric analysis: An overview and guidelines. Journal of Business Research, 133, 285–296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2021.04.070 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2021.04.070

Duggan, J., Sherman, U., Carbery, R., & McDonnell, A. (2019). Algorithmic management and app‐work in the gig economy: A research agenda for employment relations and HRM. Human Resource Man-agement Journal, 2019, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1111/1748-8583.12258 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/AMBPP.2019.15773abstract

Dunn, M., Munoz, I., & Sawyer, S. (2021). Gender Differences and Lost Flexibility in Online Freelancing During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Sociology. 6:738024. https://doi.org/10.3389/fsoc.2021.738024 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fsoc.2021.738024

Elkhwesky, Z. (2022). A systematic and major review of proactive environmental strategies in hospitali-ty and tourism: Looking back for moving forward. Business Strategy and the Environment, 31(7), 3274–3301. Portico. https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.3076 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.3076

Elkhwesky, Z., Salem, I. E., Ramkissoon, H., & Castañeda-García, J.-A. (2022). A systematic and critical review of leadership styles in contemporary hospitality: a roadmap and a call for future research. In-ternational Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 34(5), 1925–1958. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijchm-09-2021-1128 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-09-2021-1128

Ellegaard, O., & Wallin, J. A. (2015). The bibliometric analysis of scholarly production: How great is the impact? Scientometrics, 105(3), 1809–1831. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-015-1645-z DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-015-1645-z

Ettlinger, N. (2017). Paradoxes, problems and potentialities of online work platforms. Work Organisa-tion, Labour and Globalisation, 11(2). https://doi.org/10.13169/workorgalaboglob.11.2.0021 DOI: https://doi.org/10.13169/workorgalaboglob.11.2.0021

Fieseler, C., Bucher, E., & Hoffmann, C. P. (2017). Unfairness by Design? The Perceived Fairness of Digital Labor on Crowdworking Platforms. Journal of Business Ethics, 156(4), 987–1005. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-017-3607-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-017-3607-2

Fu, X., Avenyo, E., & Ghauri, P. (2021). Digital platforms and development: a survey of the literature. Innovation and Development, 11(2–3), 303–321. https://doi.org/10.1080/2157930x.2021.1975361 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/2157930X.2021.1975361

Galperin, H., & Greppi, C. (2017). Geographical Discrimination in Digital Labor Platforms. SSRN Elec-tronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2922874 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2922874

Georgiou, D. (2022). The new EU Directive on Transparent and Predictable Working Conditions in the context of new forms of employment. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 28(2), 193–210. https://doi.org/10.1177/09596801211043717 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/09596801211043717

Gerber, C. (2022). Gender and precarity in platform work: Old inequalities in the new world of work. New Technology, Work and Employment, 37(2), 206-230. https://doi.org/10.1111/ntwe.12233 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ntwe.12233

Graham, M., Hjorth, I., & Lehdonvirta, V. (2017). Digital labour and development: impacts of global digital labour platforms and the gig economy on worker livelihoods. Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research, 23(2), 135–162. https://doi.org/10.1177/1024258916687250 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1024258916687250

GVR (2023). Freelance Platforms Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Component (Plat-form, Services), By End-user, By Application (Web & Graphic Design, Project Management), By Re-gion, And Segment Forecasts, 2023 – 2030. Available at: https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/freelance-platforms-market-report/toc, last accessed: 03.10.2023.

Haidar, J. (2022). The multidimensional configuration of platform work: A mixed-methods analysis of the Argentinian case. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1177/0143831X221099663 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0143831X221099663

International Labour Organization. (2021). Digital Platforms and the World of Work in G20 Countries: Status and Policy Action. https://www.ilo.org/

IPSE. (2022). The Self-Employed Landscape Report 2022. https://www.ipse.co.uk/policy/research/the-self-employed-landscape/self-employed-landscape-report-2022.html

Kässi, O., & Lehdonvirta, V. (2018). Online labour index: Measuring the online gig economy for policy and research. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 137, 241–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2018.07.056 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2018.07.056

Kässi, O., Lehdonvirta, V., & Stephany, F. (2021). How Many Online Workers are there in the World? A Data-Driven Assessment. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/78nge. https://open-research-europe.ec.europa.eu/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/78nge

Kloostra, J. (2022). Algorithmic pricing: A concern for platform workers? European Labour Law Journal, 13(1), 108–126. https://doi.org/10.1177/20319525211060360 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/20319525211060360

Kuek, S. C., Paradi-Guilford, C., Fayomi, T., Imaizumi, S., Ipeirotis, P., Pina, P., & Singh, M. (2015). The global opportunity in online outsourcing. World Bank, Washington, DC. http://hdl.handle.net/10986/22284

Kuhn, K. M., & Maleki, A. (2017). Micro-entrepreneurs, Dependent Contractors, and Instaserfs: Under-standing Online Labor Platform Workforces. Academy of Management Perspectives, 31(3), 183–200. https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2015.0111 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2015.0111

Kullmann, M. (2018). Platform Work, Algorithmic Decision-Making, and EU Gender Equality Law. Inter-national Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, 34(1), 1-21. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3195728 DOI: https://doi.org/10.54648/IJCL2018001

Lehdonvirta, V. (2021). Flexibility in the Gig Economy: Managing Time on Three Online Piecework Platforms. New Technology, Work and Employment, 33(1), 13-29. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/k3hy4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ntwe.12102

Li, Z., & Qi, H. (2023). The Profitability Puzzle of Digital Labor Platforms. Review of Radical Political Economics, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1177/04866134231183213 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/04866134231183213

Maffie, M. D. (2020). Are we “sharing” or “gig‐ing”? A classification system for online platforms. In-dustrial Relations Journal, 51(6), 536–555. https://doi.org/10.1111/irj.12312 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/irj.12312

Maffie, M. D. (2023). Visible hands: How gig companies shape workers' exposure to market risk. Indus-trial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, 00(0), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/irel.12337. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/irel.12337

Marzouk, M., & Elshaboury, N. (2022). Science mapping analysis of embodied energy in the construc-tion industry. Energy Reports, 8, 1362–1376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2021.12.049 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2021.12.049

Meijerink, J., Keegan, A., & Bondarouk, T. (2023). Having their cake and eating it too? Online labor platforms and human resource management as a case of institutional complexity. Technologically Mediated Human Resource Management, 22–58. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003388203-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003388203-2

Mendonça, P., & Kougiannou, N.K. (2022). Disconnecting labour: The impact of intraplatform algorith-mic changes on the labour process and workers' capacity to organise collectively. New Technology, Work and Employment, 38(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1111/ntwe.12251 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ntwe.12251

Milkman, R., Elliott-Negri, L., Griesbach, K., & Reich, A. (2021). Gender, Class, and the Gig Economy: The Case of Platform-Based Food Delivery. Critical Sociology, 47(3), 357–372. https://doi.org/10.1177/0896920520949631 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0896920520949631

Milosavljević, M., Spasenić, Ž., & Krivokapić, J. (2023). Bibliometric Review of Participatory Budgeting: Current Status and Future Research Agenda. International Journal of Financial Studies, 11(3), 104. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11030104 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijfs11030104

Milosavljević, M., Spasenić, Ž., & Damnjanović, V. (2022). Bibliometric Survey on Microfinance for the SMEE Sector. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, 430–444. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-18645-5_27 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-18645-5_27

Molina-Collado, A., Santos-Vijande, M. L., Gómez-Rico, M., & Madera, J. M. (2022). Sustainability in hospitality and tourism: a review of key research topics from 1994 to 2020. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 34(8), 3029–3064. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijchm-10-2021-1305 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-10-2021-1305

Morgan, R. A., van Zoonen, W., & ter Hoeven, C. (2023). Lost in the crowd? An investigation into where microwork is conducted and classifying worker types. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 29(3), 301–322. https://doi.org/10.1177/09596801231171997 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/09596801231171997

Munkholm, N. V. (2022). Multiparty work relationships in Denmark: The active role of social partners. European Labour Law Journal, 13(4), 515–529. https://doi.org/10.1177/20319525221131184 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/20319525221131184

Muntaner, C. (2018). Digital Platforms, Gig Economy, Precarious Employment, and the Invisible Hand of Social Class. International Journal of Health Services, 48(4), 597-600. doi:10.1177/0020731418801413 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0020731418801413

Muszyński, K., Pulignano, V., Domecka, M., & Mrozowicki, A. (2021). Coping with precarity during COVID-19: A study of platform work in Poland. International Labour Review, 161(3), 463-485. https://doi.org/10.1111/ilr.12224 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ilr.12224

Nguyen, M.-H., Nguyen, H. T. T., Le, T.-T., Luong, A.-P., & Vuong, Q.-H. (2021). Gender issues in family business research: A bibliometric scoping review. Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, 29(3), 166–188. https://doi.org/10.1108/jabes-01-2021-0014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JABES-01-2021-0014

Nilsen, M., Kongsvik, T., & Antonsen, S. (2022). Taming Proteus: Challenges for Risk Regulation of Powerful Digital Labor Platforms. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(10), 6196. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106196 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106196

Online Labour Index. (2021, February 26). Getting a big update: sneak preview [Blog post]. Fabian Stephany. https://blog.oii.ox.ac.uk/2021/02/26/online-labour-index-getting-a-big-update-sneak-preview/

Oxford Internet Institute. University of Oxford. (2021). The iLabour Project: Investigating the Construc-tion of Labour Markets, Institutions and Movements on the Internet. https://ilabour.oii.ox.ac.uk/onlinelabourindex2020/

Payoneer Blog. (2023, March 7). Payoneer’s List of the Top Freelancing Countries [Blog post]. Richard Clayton. https://blog.payoneer.com/freelancers/top-10-freelancing-countries/amp/

Pesole, A., Brancati, U., Fernández-Macías, E., Biagi, F., & González Vázquez, I. (2018). Platform work-ers in Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. https://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC112157

Radonic, M., Vukmirovic, V., & Milosavljevic, M. (2021). The Impact of Hybrid Workplace Models on Intangible Assets: The Case of an Emerging Country, Amfiteatru Economic, 23(58), 770. https://doi.org/10.24818/ea/2021/58/770 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24818/EA/2021/58/770

Ren, J., Raghupathi, V., & Raghupathi, W. (2023). Exploring Influential Factors in Hiring Freelancers in Online Labor Platforms: An Empirical Study. Economies, 11(3), 80. https://doi.org/10.3390/economies11030080 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/economies11030080

Riordan, T., Robinson, R. N. S., & Hoffstaedter, G. (2022). Seeking justice beyond the platform econo-my: migrant workers navigating precarious lives. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 31(12), 2734-2751. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2022.2136189 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2022.2136189

Rodríguez Cardo, I., & Álvarez Alonso, D. (2022). Multiparty work relationships in Spain: Legal provi-sions and emerging trends. European Labour Law Journal, 13(4), 492–514. https://doi.org/10.1177/20319525221131174 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/20319525221131174

Rodríguez-Modroño, P., Pesole, A., & López-Igual, P. (2022). Assessing gender inequality in digital labour platforms in Europe. Internet Policy Review, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.14763/2022.1.1622 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14763/2022.1.1622

Rodríguez-Modroño, P., Agenjo-Calderón, A., & López-Igual, P. (2023). A Feminist Political Economic Analysis of Platform Capitalism in the Care Sector. Review of Radical Political Economics, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1177/04866134231184235 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/04866134231184235

Rosin, A. (2022). Towards a European Employment Status: The EU Proposal for a Directive on Improv-ing Working Conditions in Platform Work. Industrial Law Journal, 51(2), 478–493. https://doi.org/10.1093/indlaw/dwac011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/indlaw/dwac011

Salter, L. A., & Dutta, M. J. (2023). The algorithmic big Other: using Lacanian theory to rethink control and resistance in platform work. Distinktion: Journal of Social Theory, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1080/1600910X.2023.2224521 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1600910X.2023.2224521

Schor, J. B., Attwood-Charles, W., Cansoy, M., Ladegaard, I., & Wengronowitz, R. (2020). Dependence and precarity in the platform economy. Theory and Society, 49, 833–861. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11186-020-09408-y DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11186-020-09408-y

Sloth Laursen, C., Nielsen, M. L., & Dyreborg, J. (2021). Young Workers on Digital Labor Platforms: Uncovering the Double Autonomy Paradox. Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies. https://doi.org/10.18291/njwls.127867 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18291/njwls.127867

Spasenic, Z., Milosavljevic, M., & Milanovic, N. (2022). Project financing of renewable energy projects a bibliometric analysis and future research agenda. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 31(8), 7844-7851. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2022.06.065

Sutherland, W., Jarrahi, M. H., Dunn, M., & Nelson, S. B. (2020). Work Precarity and Gig Literacies in Online Freelancing. Work, Employment and Society, 34(3), 457–475. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017019886511 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017019886511

Tadelis, S. (2016). Reputation and Feedback Systems in Online Platform Markets. Annual Review of Economics, 8(1), 321–340. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-economics-080315-015325 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-economics-080315-015325

Tao, H., Zhuang, S., Xue, R., Cao, W., Tian, J., & Shan, Y. (2022). Environmental Finance: An Interdisci-plinary Review. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 179, 121639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2022.121639 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2022.121639

Todolí-Signes, A. (2021). Spanish riders law and the right to be informed about the algorithm. Europe-an Labour Law Journal, 12(3), 399–402. https://doi.org/10.1177/20319525211038327 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/20319525211038327

Unni, J. (2023). Platforms and Shared Economy: Precarity of Work or Building Agency? The Indian Jour-nal of Labour Economics, 66, 355–370. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41027-023-00435-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41027-023-00435-8

Upwork. (2022). Freelance Forward 2022. https://www.upwork.com/research/freelance-forward-2022

Vallas, S., & Schor, J. B. (2020). What Do Platforms Do? Understanding the Gig Economy. Annual Re-view of Sociology, 46(1), 273–294. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-121919-054857 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-121919-054857

van Eck, N. J., & Waltman, L. (2009). Software survey: VOSviewer, a computer program for bibliometric mapping. Scientometrics, 84(2), 523–538. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-009-0146-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-009-0146-3

Veale, M., Silberman ‘Six’, M., & Binns, R. (2023). Fortifying the algorithmic management provisions in the proposed Platform Work Directive. European Labour Law Journal, 14(2), 308–332. https://doi.org/10.1177/20319525231167983 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/20319525231167983

Vieira, T. (2023). The Unbearable Precarity of Pursuing Freedom: A Critical Overview of the Spanish sí soy autónomo Movement. Sociological Research Online, 28(1), 244–260. https://doi.org/10.1177/13607804211040090 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/13607804211040090

Wang, J., Li, X., Wang, P., & Liu, Q. (2022). Bibliometric analysis of digital twin literature: a review of influencing factors and conceptual structure. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/09537325.2022.2026320 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09537325.2022.2026320

Webster, N.A., & Zhang, Q. (2020). Careers Delivered from the Kitchen? Immigrant Women Small-scale Entrepreneurs Working in the Growing Nordic Platform Economy. NORA - Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, 28(2), 113-125. https://doi.org/10.1080/08038740.2020.1714725 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08038740.2020.1714725

Wood, A. J., & Lehdonvirta, V. (2022). Platforms Disrupting Reputation: Precarity and Recognition Struggles in the Remote Gig Economy. Sociology, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1177/00380385221126804 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4194901

Wood, A. J., Graham, M., Lehdonvirta, V., & Hjorth, I. (2018). Good Gig, Bad Gig: Autonomy and Algo-rithmic Control in the Global Gig Economy. Work, Employment and Society, 33(1), 56–75. https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017018785616 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0950017018785616

Wood, A. J., Lehdonvirta, V., & Graham, M. (2018). Workers of the Internet unite? Online freelancer organisation among remote gig economy workers in six Asian and African countries. New Technology, Work and Employment, 33(2), 95–112. https://doi.org/10.1111/ntwe.12112 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ntwe.12112

Xia, Y., Lv, G., Wang, H., & Ding, L. (2023). Evolution of digital economy research: A bibliometric analy-sis. International Review of Economics & Finance, 88, 1151–1172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iref.2023.07.051 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iref.2023.07.051

Yao, Q. (Missy), Baker, L. T., & Lohrke, F. T. (2022). Building and sustaining trust in remote work by platform-dependent entrepreneurs on digital labor platforms: Toward an integrative framework. Journal of Business Research, 149, 327–339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2022.05.046 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2022.05.046

Zengyi, X. (2022). Labour Protection of Platform Workers in China: Legal Innovations and Emerging Trends. Industrial Law Journal, 51(4), 831–854. https://doi.org/10.1093/indlaw/dwac029 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/indlaw/dwac029

Zhang, L., Ling, J., & Lin, M. (2022). Artificial intelligence in renewable energy: A comprehensive bibli-ometric analysis. Energy Reports, 8, 14072–14088. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2022.10.347 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2022.10.347